PERIOD 7: 1890–1945 (17%) Chapters 27-35
An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges, debated the proper degree of government activism, and sought to define its international role.
Key Concept 7.1: Governmental, political, and social organizations struggled to address the effects of large-scale industrialization, economic uncertainty, and related social changes such as urbanization and mass migration.
I. The continued growth and consolidation of large corporations transformed American society and the nation’s economy, promoting urbanization and economic growth, even as business cycle fluctuations became increasingly severe.A. Large corporations came to dominate the U.S. economy as it increasingly focused on the production of consumer goods, driven by new technologies and manufacturing techniques.WXT-7 Compare the beliefs and strategies of movements advocating changes to the U.S. economic system since industrialization, particularly the organized labor, Populist, and Progressive movements.
II. Progressive reformers responded to economic instability, social inequality, and political corruption by calling for government intervention in the economy, expanded democracy, greater social justice, and conservation of natural resources.A. In the late 1890s and the early years of the 20th century, journalists and Progressive reformers — largely urban and middle class, and often female — worked to reform existing social and political institutions at the local, state, and federal levels by creating new organizations aimed at addressing social problems associated with an industrial society.
B. Progressives promoted federal legislation to regulate abuses of the economy and the environment, and many sought to expand democracy.
POL-4 Analyze how and why the New Deal, the Great Society, and the modern conservative movement all sought to change the federal government’s role in U.S. political, social, and economic life.
III. National, state, and local reformers responded to economic upheavals, laissez-faire capitalism, and the Great Depression by transforming the U.S. into a limited welfare state.
A. The liberalism of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal drew on earlier progressive ideas and represented a multifaceted approach to both the causes and effects of the Great Depression, using government power to provide relief to the poor, stimulate recovery, and reform the American economy.
C. Although the New Deal did not completely overcome the Depression, it left a legacy of reforms and agencies that endeavored to make society and individuals more secure, and it helped foster a long-term political realignment in which many ethnic groups, African Americans, and working-class communities identified with the Democratic Party.
Key Concept 7.2: A revolution in communications and transportation technology helped to create a new mass culture and spread “modern” values and ideas, even as cultural conflicts between groups increased under the pressure of migration, world wars, and economic distress.
B. Technological change, modernization, and changing demographics led to increased political and cultural conflict on several fronts: tradition versus innovation, urban versus rural, fundamentalist Christianity versus scientific modernism, management versus labor, native-born versus new immigrants, white versus black, and idealism versus disillusionment.
C. The rise of an urban, industrial society encouraged the development of a variety of cultural expressions for migrant, regional, and African American artists (expressed most notably in the Harlem Renaissance movement); it also contributed to national culture by making shared experiences more possible through art, cinema, and the mass media.
II. The global ramifications of World War I and wartime patriotism and xenophobia, combined with social tensions created by increased international migration, resulted in legislation restricting immigration from Asia and from southern and eastern Europe.
B. As labor strikes and racial strife disrupted society, the immediate postwar period witnessed the first “Red Scare,” which legitimized attacks on radicals and immigrants.
C. Several acts of Congress established highly restrictive immigration quotas, while national policies continued to permit unrestricted immigration from nations in the Western Hemisphere, especially Mexico, in order to guarantee an inexpensive supply of labor.
PEO-3 Analyze the causes and effects of major internal migration patterns such as urbanization, suburbanization, westward movement, and the Great Migration in the 19th and 20th centuries.
III. Economic dislocations, social pressures, and the economic growth spurred by World Wars I and II led to a greater degree of migration within the United States, as well as migration to the United States from elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere.
A. Although most African Americans remained in the South despite legalized segregation and racial violence, some began a “Great Migration” out of the South to pursue new economic opportunities offered by World War I.
C. Many Mexicans, drawn to the U.S. by economic opportunities, faced ambivalent government policies in the 1930s and 1940s.
Key Concept 7.3: Global conflicts over resources, territories, and ideologies renewed debates over the nation’s values and its role in the world, while simultaneously propelling the United States into a dominant international military, political, cultural, and economic position.
I. Many Americans began to advocate overseas expansionism in the late 19th century, leading to new territorial ambitions and acquisitions in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific.
A. The perception in the 1890s that the western frontier was “closed,” economic motives, competition with other European imperialist ventures of the time, and racial theories all furthered arguments that Americans were destined to expand their culture and norms to others, especially the nonwhite nations of the globe.
B. The American victory in the Spanish-American War led to the U.S. acquisition of island territories, an expanded economic and military presence in the Caribbean and Latin America, engagement in a protracted insurrection in the Philippines, and increased involvement in Asia.
C. Questions about America’s role in the world generated considerable debate, prompting the development of a wide variety of views and arguments between imperialists and anti-imperialists and, later, interventionists and isolationists.
ID-3 Analyze how U.S. involvement in international crises such as the Spanish American War, World Wars I and II, the Great Depression, and the Cold War influenced public debates about American national identity in the 20th century.
WOR-7 Analyze the goals of U.S. policymakers in major international conflicts, such as the Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II, and the Cold War, and explain how U.S. involvement in these conflicts has altered the U.S. role in world affairs.
II. World War I and its aftermath intensified debates about the nation’s role in the world and how best to achieve national security and pursue American interests.
A. After initial neutrality in World War I the nation entered the conflict, departing from the U.S. foreign policy tradition of noninvolvement in European affairs in response to Woodrow Wilson’s call for the defense of humanitarian and democratic principles.
B. Although the American Expeditionary Force played a relatively limited role in the war, Wilson was heavily involved in postwar negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations, both of which generated substantial debate within the United States.
C. In the years following World War I, the United States pursued a unilateral foreign policy that used international investment, peace treaties, and select military intervention to promote a vision of international order, even while maintaining U.S. isolationism, which continued to the late 1930s.
III. The involvement of the United States in World War II, while opposed by most Americans prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, vaulted the United States into global political and military prominence, and transformed both American society and the relationship between the United States and the rest of the world.
A. The mass mobilization of American society to supply troops for the war effort and a workforce on the home front ended the Great Depression and provided opportunities for women and minorities to improve their socio-economic positions.
B. Wartime experiences, such as the internment of Japanese Americans, challenges to civil liberties, debates over race and segregation, and the decision to drop the atomic bomb raised questions about American values.
D. The dominant American role in the Allied victory and postwar peace settlements, combined with the war-ravaged condition of Asia and Europe, allowed the United States to emerge from the war as the most powerful nation on earth.Your study guide on the Progressive Era Have this completed by 2/20 for your quizActivity I: Life inside the meatpacking industry. Read the following excerpts from Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and answer the questions that are provided. (this can be done on a separate sheet of paper.) President Roosevelt's views on the muckrakers. Due 2/18Activity II: working conditions during the Progressive Era: Go to the Following website and answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper. Due 2/181. Give four-five examples of the working conditions of the factory2. How did the fire break out?3. How many people died? #W, #M?4. What was the city’s reaction to the fire?5. What reforms were called for?
6. What happened to the factory owners?7. Sumarize three examples of personal accounts of those who survived the fire.Activity III: Civil Rights1. Read the History of the Suffrage Movement on this link and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.2. Read about Civil Rights Leaders WEB Dubois, Booker T. Washington, and Marcus Garvey. Biographies are here. This link will take you to their own words here. Please fill out the following graphic organizer. (or make your own) Due 2/18Activity IV: ImmigrationActivity V: Progressive PresidentsRead article on Roosevelt's Progressivism and answer the questions that are provided. Due 2/19 PDF formImperialism and World War IWorld War I PPT notes Chapter reading Thursday's assignment PDF Thursday's assignment Word check back if off on Friday!FRIDAY's snow day assignment: 1. Continue to work on Thursday's assignment. 2. I would like you to read and answer questions about those at home who protested the war for various reasons. These questions need to be completed by TUESDAY.Good PPT reviews to help with Friday's essay Foreign policy of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson Civil Liberties in WWIGreat article from the NY Times discussing the impact of World War I. READ THIS AT SOME POINT.The "Return to Normalcy" and the "Roaring" 1920s
Roaring 20's Internet Activity Worksheet
Part I: Culture clashes of the 1920's: Use the following website to answer the questions below. Write your answers in your notebook.
1. What metamorphosis did the U.S. undergo during the early part of the 1920's?
2. Read the rest of the Introduction Page:
1. Who do you think "won" the clash of cultures (the "old" or the "new")? Explain.
2. SYNTHESIS: Is this clash of cultures still going on today? Explain and provide examples.
3. Give three reasons why Prohibition failed.
4. What term is used for the anti-immigrant sentiment which was a backlash against a long period of immigration and World War I in the U.S.?
5. What did the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 do?
6. What did the Immigration Act of 1924 do?
7. What did Ku Klux Klan activities focus on defending during the '20's?
8. What four major groups did the KKK focus on weakening?
9. How many ordinary, “respectable”, middle class Americans were enrolled in the Klan?
10. Did the KKK support women’s suffrage? Why or why not?
11. Did the KKK support the “new woman” of the 1920s? Explain.
12. Provide three major reasons why the Klan declined in the later 1920s.
13. What were two main characteristics of the "flapper"?
14. What was the main point of conflict in the Scopes trial?Check out these sites for more info..Part II: The First Red Scare: View the PPT and website on defining the Red Scare and the outcome of the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti to answer the following questions. PDF version
1. What were the main sources of American’s fear of communism during the 1920s?
2. Why do you think most American’s rejected the principles of communism?
3. How did anarchists in our country contribute to Americans fear of communism?
4. How did the case of Sacco and Vanzetti show American fear of communism?
5. Who was Mitchell Palmer? What role did he play in the Red Scare of the 1920s?
6. What happened to “victims” of the Palmer Raids?
7. Why was Palmer able to get away with his raids, arrests, and deportations without hard evidence?
8. Why do many believe Palmer took advantage of the American public’s fear of communism?
9. How specifically were people’s right’s violated during the Red Scare?
10. How do you think the Red Scare contributed to the growth of the KKK during the 1920s? What lesson can be learned from the Red Scare?"Does Jazz put the 'sin' in Syncopation?" great article.Check out this site. Great pictorial overview of the 1920sFor Thursday:The Presidents of the 1920s Read the following article and make comparisons between Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. Pay particular attention to Laissez-faire policies.The Great Depression and New DealBank run-ons (Excerpt from It's a Wonderful Life.)FDR's first Inaugural addressThe Critics of the New Deal...Huey Long's Share our WealthFather Coughlin and the Union for Social JusticeArticle on the Court packing scheme of 1937World War IINotes: From Peace to Pearl Harbor The Homefront European Theater Pacific Theater Dropping of the Atomic BombTruman's Speech on Hiroshima
For the Military History Buffs.... Great sites here and here on D-Day, along with this site here on the Pacific theater.
Article on the Tuskegee Airmen
Women during World War II
Government footage here on the dropping of Atomic on Japan as well as a documentary on the 24 hours after Hiroshima.